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June 17, 2018

8:45 PM

The more you expand your past, the more you also expand your future

In the final chapter of his 1932 book about 18th century philosophers, American historian Carl Becker argues (and I agree with him) that the more you expand your consciousness of your own past (both personal and historical), the more you also expand your own future.

Specifically, according to Becker, “The more of the past we drag into the present, the more a hypothetical future crowds into it also”. Goethe said something similar when he suggested that if you don’t know 3000 years of history, you will be wandering in the darkness of the present.

Becker again: “If our memories of past events are short and barren, our anticipations of future events will be short and barren”. He also explains that the richness and extension of the future depends on the past having those two same characteristics.

Let’s accept what Becker proposes, that is, that the duration and depth of our past determines or at least anticipates with a high degree of probability the duration and depth of our future. What that thought means for us, citizens of the 21st century living trapped inside an ephemeral present, so ephemeral that it becomes immediately obsolete?

Perhaps it means that our future is also ephemeral and automatically obsolete. After years of researching the topic, I believe that’s exactly the case.

If everything we are aware of is the “now” and if that “now” is decontextualized and ahistorical (that is, we don’t know why what is happening today is happening today), then we are not aware either of the emerging future, which is no longer a continuation from the past.

In other words, as Becker argues, the past is not something that already happened, but the consciousness in the present of a past event. From that perspective, all past and all history are present. For that reason, the future is not something that it hasn’t happened yet, but it is something already present in the present, even if we are unaware of its presence.

But if we are not even aware of ourselves, if we live in a perpetual state of self-alienation and oblivion, if we fight against our own metamorphosis thinking, as the caterpillar does, it is a disease, then we will never be able to connect with the source of our being. For that reason, we won’t be able to connect with our best future version to bring that version of ourselves to the present.

That situation doesn’t mean we are living or miserable lives, or that we are bad people (or good people, for that matter.) It means we have adopted a self-limiting pattern of events.

As Becker said, “Memory of the past and anticipation of future events work together, without disputing over priority or leadership”. From that perspective, the awareness of the present is a pattern of thought where there is an interconnection between memories and anticipations.

In other words, if we don’t remember our gran parents (our ancestors), we won’t be able to think about our grandchildren (our descendants.)

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June 17, 2018

8:44 PM

Cuánto más expandas tu pasado, más expandirás tu futuro

En el último capítulo de su libro escrito en 1932 sobre los filósofos del siglo 18, el historiador estadounidense Carl Becker argumenta (en mi opinión, acertadamente) que cuánto más una expanda la consciencia de su propio pasado (tanto a nivel personal como histórico), más expandirá uno su propio futuro.

Específicamente, dice Becker, “Cuánto más del pasado uno trae al presente consciente, más de un hipotético futuro se agolpa en el presente”.  Goethe decía algo similar cuando afirmaba que se deben conocer 3000 años de historia para no vagabundear en la oscuridad del presente. Y Agustín de Hipona, en sus Confesiones, hablaba de la memoria como punto de partida del futuro.

Para citar nuevamente a Becker: “Si nuestros recuerdos del pasado son cortos y vacíos, nuestras anticipaciones del porvenir también probablemente lo serán”. O, como Becker lo explica: “Las riquezas y extensión de uno (el futuro) dependen de esas mismas características en el otro (el pasado)”.

Pero si aceptamos lo que dice Becker, es decir, que la duración y profundidad de nuestro pasado determina o por lo menos anticipa con cierta probabilidad la duración y profundidad de nuestro futuro, ¿qué significa eso para nosotros, ciudadanos del siglo 21 que vivimos atrapados en un efímero presente, tan efímero que se vuelve inmediatamente obsoleto?

¿Significa eso que nuestro futuro también será efímero y automáticamente obsoleto? En mi opinión (basada en años de estudios y lecturas sobre el tema), sí.

Si todo aquello de lo cual tenemos consciencia es el “hoy” y, aún peor, un “hoy” descontextualizado y sin historia (como si lo que sucede hoy hubiese surgido espontáneamente), entonces tampoco tendremos consciencia del futuro emergente, que ya no es continuidad del pasado ni puede entenderse a partir del pasado.

En otras palabras, el pasado, lejos de ser algo que ya pasó, es, argumenta Becker, la consciencia presente de lo que ya pasó. Desde esa perspectiva, todo pasado y toda historia son presente. Y por eso mismo, el futuro no es algo que todavía no pasó, sino algo que ya existe en el presente, tengamos o no consciencia de esa existencia.

Pero si ni siquiera tenemos consciencia de nosotros mismos, si vivimos en un perpetuo estado de autoalienación, si combatimos nuestra transformación (metamorfosis) como la oruga combate la suya creyéndola una enfermedad, entonces jamás podremos conocer nuestro pasado ni conectarnos con la fuente de lo que somos. Por eso mismo, no podremos conectarnos con la mejor versión futura de nosotros mismos para traerla al presente.

Eso no significa que vivamos vidas desagradables, problemáticas o miserables. Ni tampoco nos hace malas personas (o buenas). Sólo significa que hemos adoptado un modelo de eventos autolimitante.

Como dice Becker, “la memoria del pasado y la anticipación del futuro trabajan juntas, sin disputarse ni prioridad ni liderazgo”. Desde esa perspectiva la consciencia del presente es un patrón de pensamiento en el que instantáneamente se entrelazan los recuerdos y las anticipaciones.

Más sucintamente, si no recordamos a nuestros abuelos (o nuestros ancestros) no podremos pensar en nuestros nietos (posteridad.) 

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June 11, 2018

9:34 PM

“We are still slaves”, the woman said during the community meeting

I was recently invited to a gathering of community leaders representing different organizations and groups wanting to have a project in common. During the second hour of the meeting and with no warning, one of the participants stood up and said, “We are still slaves!”, surprising all the participants and even herself.

The woman, a well-known local African-American leader, said that when she was a child, her grandparents cultivated fruits and vegetables in their backyard. Their home was then in the outskirts of the city. Then, when she was a teen, the city grew, and backyard gardening was not allowed, so a community garden was created.

A few weeks ago, that community garden was closed for good. The owner of the place and the local municipality were not able to agree about water for the plants.

Reflecting about the lost garden, the woman said that her people (and not only her people, I add) act assuming they are free when, in fact, they can’t even produce their own food or decide what they want to eat. And when you lose your traditional food, she explained, you also lose the traditions that were part of every meal you shared with yours.

Once the memory of your community is gone, your own memory is gone. It’s not that you don’t know what you are eating. It’s that you don’t even know who you are. You feel free. You have opportunities, but, for all purposes, you are a slave.

The veteran leader spoke then about the slavery of African and African Americans in the United States, but then she immediately moved back to the present, saying that “our slavery” (her words) is worst than the previous one, because in the past slaves knew they were slaves, but we live assuming we are free.

That thought reminded me of an article I read last February about South Korean philosopher Byung-Chul Han (who lives in Germany.) Han said that “No we exploit ourselves and we call that self-development.”

Specifically, Han said that the society presented by Orwell in 1984 was “a society aware of being dominated”, while in our society, according to Han, “we don’t have any awareness of being dominated.”

Han said that we live at a time of “self-explotation” and of “horror of the other”. For that reason, we live “in the desert, the hell of the same”. So, we are slaves and we don’t know it.

Why? Because we can’t even try to be different because being different means being the same as everybody else who wants to be different. Even worst, “being different” now means “marketable differences”. You are different only if you can “sell” your differences.

How do we move beyond that situation where reality is being abolished? Han proposes a simple solution: cultivate your own garden so you can reconnect with the reality of “colors, aromas, and feelings”, that is, with the other and the different.

Intuitively, the African American leader already knew it. And that’s true, undeniable wisdom.

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June 11, 2018

9:33 PM

“Todavía somos esclavos” afirmó asombrada la mujer

Recientemente me invitaron a participar de un encuentro de dirigentes comunitarios de varias organizaciones y grupos para desarrollar un proyecto en común. En la segunda hora del encuentro y sin previo aviso, una de las participantes se paró y anunció “Todavía somos esclavos”, para el asombro de ella misma y del resto de los congregados.

La mujer, una veterana dirigente afroamericana, contó entonces que cuando ella era una niña, sus abuelos cultivaban la mayoría de sus frutas y verduras en lo que en aquella época eran las afueras de la ciudad. Luego, ya en su juventud, esos cultivos fueron prohibidos por las autoridades locales, por lo que la tarea se trasladó a un jardín comunitario.

Y hace pocas semanas ese jardín fue cerrado, debido a la falta de cooperación entre el dueño del lugar y las autoridades locales sobre uso del agua para regar las plantas.

Al reflexionar sobre ese hecho, la dirigente afirmó que su pueblo (y, agrego yo, lo mismo les pasa a muchos otros pueblos) que, aunque supuestamente libres, ni siquiera pueden producir sus propios alimentos o decidir qué van a comer. De esa manera, dijo, no solamente las comidas tradicionales, sino también las historias que acompañan a esas comidas se van perdiendo.

Y una vez que se pierde la memoria propia y comunitaria, cuando uno ya no sabe lo que come ni por qué lo come, y, aún peor, uno ni siquiera sabe quién es uno mismo, por más libre que uno se sienta, por más oportunidades que uno tenga, uno se ha vuelto esclavo.

La dirigente estableció un breve paralelismo con la esclavitud de la comunidad africana y afroamericana en Estados Unidos, pero inmediatamente regresó al presente, afirmando que “nuestra esclavitud” (sus palabras) es aún peor, porque por lo menos los esclavos del pasado se sabían esclavos, mientras que nosotros nos creemos libres.

Esas expresiones me recordaron un artículo de febrero de este año en el que el filósofo surcoreano Byung-Chul Han (que reside en Alemania) afirma que “Ahora uno se explota a sí mismo y uno cree que está realizándose”.

Específicamente, dijo Han, la sociedad que Orwell describe en su famoso libre 1984 era “una sociedad consciente de que estaba siendo dominada”. Pero hoy, según este filósofo, “no tenemos ni consciencia de la dominación”.

Para Han, ahora vivimos en una constante autoexplotación y “con pavor hacia el otro”. Por eso, vivimos “en el desierto o el infierno de lo igual”. Y entonces, ¿en qué sentido somos esclavos? En que ya no podemos ser distintos porque ser distintos significa ser iguales a todos los que quieren ser distintos. Aún peor, ser distinto ahora equivale a “diferencias comercializables”.

¿Cómo se sale entonces de ese encierro que lleva a abolir la realidad? Han propone una fórmula sencilla: cultivar un jardín propio como una manera de retomar el contacto con la realidad de “colores, olores y sensaciones”, es decir, con lo otro, lo distinto, lo diferente.

Intuitivamente, la dirigente afroamericana ya lo sabía. Esa es la verdadera sabiduría.

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June 4, 2018

9:02 PM

Are you aware of the excuses you use to hide from the new future?

I recently had the privilege of making a presentation about the emerging future to a community group. The presentation was an opportunity to listen again to a long list of excuses we (I include myself in the “we”) use to hide from the new future and to remain hidden inside a past which exists only inside a nostalgic imagination.

“I understand nothing about Artificial Intelligence (AI)”, told one of the participants. I asked him what he has read or heard about AI. He told me, “I read nothing, and I understand nothing. What’s the point of reading?”

In other words, he understood nothing about AI because he had no enough information about the topic and, at the same time, he didn’t have information because he understood nothing. An interesting vicious circle of excuses which with each repetition becomes more solid and less visible.

Another participant told me, “I can’t save money because I don’t have enough money”. Obviously, he doesn’t have enough money because he is not saving money, but that second half of the equation was never mentioned by him.

In addition, others expressed excuses I have heard many times, excuses using to rationalize why our mind, heart, and hands should remain closed. “That’s not what my grandma told me”, said one person. “My pastor/priest said it’s not so”, added another one. “My son told me that’s not the case”, added a third person.

I asked them, “So, what do you think?” They repeated the same excuses they just expressed a minute ago. And here they were, here we were, trapped inside the cave of our own thoughts such as those unlucky persons trapped inside Plato’s cave (in the Republic).

Somebody once said that the biggest addiction in our time is not the addiction to drugs or to horrible vices, but the addition to our own thoughts. It’s true. We are addicted to our own ideas and thoughts and the addiction is so strong we don’t even know how addicted we are.

We move in circles inside our own echo chamber to listen again and again only to our thoughts. Paradoxically, the unthought thoughts, the acritically accepted thoughts, are the thoughts we accept because they match our needs and desires. And we call them “reality” and “truth”.

Yet, the new future challenge us to challenge our own thoughts (and beliefs, actions, behaviors, hopes, and assumptions.) Without that challenge, the future would not be neither new nor future, but a mere extended repetition of the past and an infinite repetition of the present.

“You think the future”, said Enrique Santín. So, if we don’t think the future, we are not part of the future. And that’s exactly what is happening to us. We are so obsessed about learning about the past that we are unable to learn from the future.

How do we exit the cavern? Many mysteries in the universe and in life are solved as soon as we boldly accept we all are multidimensional beings living one-dimensional lives.

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June 4, 2018

9:00 PM

¿Detrás de qué círculo de excusas nos escondemos del nuevo futuro?

Recientemente tuve el privilegio de hacer una presentación comunitaria sobre el futuro emergente y esa presentación me permitió escuchar una vez más una larga lista de excusas que invocamos (porque yo me incluyo) para negarnos a ser parte del nuevo futuro y para escondernos en un pasado que sólo existe en nuestra nostálgica imaginación.

“No entiendo nada sobre la inteligencia artificial”, expresó uno de los participantes. Le pregunté entonces qué había leído o escuchado sobre la inteligencia artificial, y me respondió: “Nada, porque no entiendo nada. ¿Para qué voy a leer?”

En otras palabras, no entiende nada sobre el tema porque no se ha informado sobre ese tema, pero a la vez no se ha informado porque asume que no entiende nada. Un interesante círculo de excusas que con cada repetición se vuelve a la vez más profundo y menos visible.

Y luego otro participante comentó: “Yo no puedo ahorrar porque no tengo dinero”. Obviamente, no tiene dinero porque no puede ahorrar, pero esa segunda parte de la ecuación no fue mencionada y probablemente no fue tenida en cuenta por el participante en el encuentro como algo inseparable de lo que ya había dicho.

Además, se repitieron conocidas excusas que amablemente buscan racionalizar y justificar mantener la mente, el corazón y la voluntad cerrados. “Eso no es lo que me enseñó mi abuela”, aseveró una persona. “Mi pastor (sacerdote) dice que no”, enfatizó otra. “Mi hijo me dijo que no es así”, declaró alguien más.

Preguntarles “¿Y usted qué piensa?” resultó equivalente a pedirles que repitiesen las mismas excusas que ya habían expresado. Y allí seguían y seguíamos, tan encerrados dentro de la caverna de nuestros propios pensamientos como aquellos desdichados encerrados dentro de la famosa caverna de la que hablar Platón en La República.

Alguien dijo que la mayor adicción moderna no es la adicción a las drogas o los vicios, sino la adicción a nuestros propios pensamientos. Y es verdad. Nos volvemos adictos a nuestros propios pensamientos y, como toda adicción que se precie de tal, ni siquiera sabemos que somos adictos.

Damos vueltas en círculos dentro la cámara del eco para escuchar una y otra vez lo que pensamos, con la paradoja que los pensamientos no pensados, es decir, aquellos aceptados acríticamente, son los que aceptamos porque se adecuan a nuestras necesidades o a nuestra realidad. Y por eso los llamamos “verdad”.

Pero el nuevo futuro exige desafiar nuestros pensamientos (y creencias, acciones, conductas, esperanzas y sospechas). De lo contrario no sería ni “nuevo” ni futuro, sino una mera extensión del pasado o una infinita repetición del presente.

“El futuro se piensa”, decía Enrique Santín. Entonces, como corolario, sino pensamos no entramos en el futuro. Y eso es exactamente lo que no está pasando. Y entonces insistimos en aprender sobre el pasado en vez de aprender desde el futuro.

¿Cómo salimos de ese encierro autoimpuesto? Muchos misterios del universo y de la vida humana se resuelven si audazmente aceptamos que todos nosotros somos seres multidimensionales viviendo unidimensionalmente.

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May 28, 2018

9:12 PM

Don’t teach me how to spell “banana”, but “future”

I recently went to a well-known supermarket chain to but a certain fruit. Since that was the only thing I bought, I decided not to go to the human cashier (there was a long line) and I went to the automatic payment station. I put the fruit on the scale to weight it and, at that very moment, I was interrupted by a store employee.

With no previous interaction, the man (white, old) told me he could help me to spell “banana”. I thought it was a joke and I laughed. I thought the conversation was over, but then he told me again that if I couldn’t spell “banana” he will do it for me.

I wanted to ask him if he was planning to write “banana” in English or in Spanish and if he knew if “banana” had an “h” somewhere in the word. I didn’t ask anything, of course. I asked him (in English), What’s seems to be the problem? Is there any problem with me?

As soon as he heard me speaking English, this employee of a well-known supermarket chain did something unexpected: he ran away from me as fast as he could. He went behind a counter and stayed there.

I was upset with the incident, but not just because somebody who is unaware of reality assumes that if a person doesn’t look like him the other person is illiterate and he “must help” the other person. Unfortunately, many people live according to their prejudices (we, of course, do the same thing.)

As somebody once cleverly said, we don’t see things as they are, but as we are.

I was upset about the incident because a certain level of existential urgency. While some people treat us as illiterate, uneducated persons, the world is moving in a different direction where the knowledge the “learned” people assume to have will not be enough for them to enter the new future.

I say that based on the many reports published just a few days ago during and after the C2 Forum in Montreal, where the main topics were Artificial Intelligence and blockchain. Basically, experts from all over the world said that very soon industries and organizations will be radically transformed.

In fact, during the forum experts presented examples of Artificial Intelligence helping humanitarian and charitable projects, as well as initiatives of global change. In addition, now we have a new technology, bioprinters, able to print human organs.

Also, MIT developed a new material that can be program to assemble itself (think about metal turning into a car by itself.) In 2020, Artificial Intelligence will dominate all aspects of worldwide economy and finances, with unknown consequences for humans. And all that change is speeding up.

As experts said during the forum in Montreal, the future is a present reality.

I know how to spell “banana”. But, sir, do you know how to spell “future”? (By the way, it is spell “powerful innovation for global transformation”.) Can we spell “future” together?

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May 28, 2018

9:11 PM

No necesito que me enseñen cómo deletrear “banana”, sino “futuro”

Recientemente, para satisfacer mi deseo de comer una cierta fruta, fui a una muy conocida cadena de supermercados a comprar esa fruta. Como esa era mi única compra, decidí evitar el cajero humano e ir directamente a la caja de pago automático. Puse la fruta en el lugar correspondiente para pesarla y en ese mismo instante me interrumpió un empleado.

Sin previo aviso, el hombre (blanco, anciano), me dijo que él podía ayudarme a deletrear “banana”. Sinceramente pensé que era una broma, por lo que me reí y lo ignoré. Pero entonces me dijo que si yo no sabía escribir “banana”, él lo haría por mí.

Tuve deseos de preguntarle si él iba a escribir “banana” en inglés o en español y si él sabía si “banana” se escribía con hache o sin hache. Pero no hice nada de eso. Simplemente le pregunté (en inglés): ¿Cuál es el problema? ¿Hay algún problema conmigo?

Al escucharme hablar en inglés, el empleado de la conocidísima cadena de supermercados hizo algo inesperado: salió corriendo tan rápido como pudo. Se alejó de mí y se “refugió” detrás de uno de los mostradores. Y allí se quedó, escondido.

El incidente me molestó, pero no sólo porque un ignorante de la realidad asume que si alguien no se parece a él la otra persona es analfabeta y él tiene la “obligación” de “ayudar” a esa otra persona. Lamentablemente, el mundo está lleno de personas con ese tipo de prejuicios (cada uno de nosotros incluidos).

Se dice que no vemos las cosas como son, sino que vemos las cosas como somos. Y es verdad.

La verdadera molestia surgió más bien de una cierta urgencia existencial. Porque mientras que algunos creen que somos analfabetos y nos tratan como tales, el mundo se mueve rápidamente en una dirección en la que los (falsos) conocimientos de los prejuiciosos no van a ser suficientes para ser parte del nuevo futuro.

Así por lo menos lo demuestran los anuncios realizados durante el Foro C2 en Montreal la semana pasada, donde se habló de inteligencia artificial y de blockchain (bloques encadenados). Básicamente, los expertos afirmaron que todas las industrias y organizaciones serán transformadas en el futuro cercano.

De hecho, en ese foro se habló de cómo la inteligencia artificial ya ayuda a proyectos humanitarios y de caridad, y a iniciativas de cambios globales. Además, se presentaron nuevas tecnologías de bioimpresoras para imprimir órganos humanos.

Además, material desarrollado por MIT permite que ese material se programe y ensamble a sí mismo (por ejemplo, eventualmente un carro podría construirse a sí mismo, sin máquinas que lo construyan.) En 2020, la inteligencia artificial dominará todos los aspectos de la economía y de las finanzas, con consecuencias todavía desconocidas para los humanos. Y ese cambio se está acelerando.

Como bien se dijo en el foro en Montreal, el futuro es una realidad presente.

Yo sé escribir “banana”. Pero señor, ¿usted sabe escribir “futuro”? (Se escribe “poderosa innovación de transformación mundial”.)  ¿Qué le parece si lo escribimos juntos?

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May 20, 2018

9:50 PM

Should we deny the possibility of intelligent extraterrestrial octopi living on earth?

Just a few days ago (May 13, 2018), an international group of more than 30 scientists from different universities published a paper together analyzing the cause of the “Cambrian explosion” an “explosion” of life that happened on earth around 500 million years ago. They conclude the “explosion” probably had a “cosmic” cause (that is, extraterrestrial.)

The research, led by Dr. Edward Steele and his many colleagues, was published at the Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology magazine. According to Steele, a virus from outer space could be linked to the “evolutionary diversification” of life on earth. Even more amazing, it is possible that intelligent octopi (cephalopods) also have a cosmic origin.

In other words, octopi are intelligent because they got their intelligence from other space. Otherwise, it would be very difficult to explain their evolution of the “complex intelligence” of those animals.

Perhaps (my words), octopi are the long-lost intelligent extraterrestrial beings we were looking for, and they are here on earth.

Obviously, as soon as the hypothesis was announced, scientists, experts, and reports quickly dismissed it. Many said the otherworldly origin of octopi is simply unacceptable. Others said the hypothesis is pure nonsense. After all, who in his/her right mind would ever dare to say that octopi are intelligent beings from outer space?

I have no idea where octopi came from. That one of the millions of things I don’t know. I do know, however, that “experts” and “scientists” once said earth was flat. And when it was time to accept earth was round, those same “experts” and “scientists” insisted earth the center of the universe.

Eventually, centuries later, earth lost its privilege place in the universe. But then it was said (even until 70 years ago or so) that the Milky Was encompassed the whole universe.

It took decades of many experiments and observations to reluctantly accept the Milky Way was but one among countless galaxies in the universe. At first, of course, it was believed that the Milky Way was the bigger of the galaxies. That’s not the case. And perhaps our universe is but one among a countless plurality of universes.

Just a couple of centuries ago, “experts” and “scientists” rejected the idea of meteorites coming from space. They said heavy “stone” can’t fly high enough to then fall from the sky. And even if that could happen, stones don’t burn. So, they were sure people who saw meteorites falling down were simply mistaken.

Also, the idea of the continental drift was finally accepted just last century. The hypothesis was presented a long time before that. Yet, when it was proposed, it was ridiculed in the same way that the ideas of meteorites from space and of octopi from space were ridiculed.

So, we need to be careful about saying “That’s wrong and it can’t be true”. In saying so, we are reveling more about our loyalty to a certain dogma and people than about our openness of heart and mind to a new mysterious reality.

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May 20, 2018

9:49 PM

No nos apresuremos a negar la posibilidad de pulpos extraterrestres inteligentes

Francisco Miraval

Hace sólo una semana (13 de mayo de 2018), más de 30 científicos de universidades de todo el mundo publicaron un artículo en una revista especializada analizando la causa de la llamada “explosión cámbrica” (la “explosión” de vida en la tierra hace 500 millones de años). Y la conclusión es que esa causa no sería de origen terrestre, sino cósmico (extraterrestre.)

El reporte, a cargo del Dr. Edward Steele y sus numerosos colaboradores, fue publicado en la revista Progreso en Biofísica y Biología Molecular y afirma que la llegada de virus del espacio habría causado una “diversificación evolucionaria” en la tierra. Y, en ese contexto, la inteligencia de los pulpos (cefalópodos) sería una indicación de su origen cósmico.

Dicho de otro modo, los pulpos son inteligentes porque su inteligencia vino del espacio exterior, ya que de otra manera resulta difícil explicar la evolución de la compleja inteligencia de los pulpos.

En definitiva, agrego yo, los pulpos serían los seres extraterrestres inteligentes que siempre estuvimos buscando (o quizá sus distantes descendientes.)

Obviamente, tan pronto como el artículo se publicó, científicos, expertos y comentaristas se apresuraron a decir que la hipótesis de un origen extraterrestre de los pulpos es, en el mejor de los casos, inaceptable y, en el peor de los casos, simplemente ridícula. Después de todo, ¿quién se atrevería a decir que los pulpos son inteligentes porque provienen del espacio?

Personalmente, no sé de dónde provienen los pulpos. Esa es una de las muchísimas cosas que no sé. Pero sí que en algún momento los “expertos” y los “científicos” afirmaban que la tierra era plana. Y cuando ya fue imposible negar que la tierra es redonda, esos mismos “expertos” y “científicos” afirmaban que la tierra era el centro del universo.

Eventualmente, la tierra perdió su lugar de privilegio en el centro del universo, pero entonces (hasta mediados del siglo pasado) se creía que nuestra galaxia, la Vía Láctea, era todo el universo.

Y se necesitaron varias décadas de experimentos para que reluctantemente se aceptase que la Vía Láctea es sólo una de las incontables galaxias del universo. Y quizá nuestro universo sea sólo uno en una pluralidad de universos.

Y hasta hace sólo un par de siglos se rechazaba el origen espacial de los meteoritos. Los científicos decían que piedras pesadas no podían elevarse tan alto como para caer del cielo y que, si eso sucediese, esas piedras simplemente caerían, pero no se quemarían. Así, los “expertos” descartaban los reportes y observaciones de meteoritos cayendo a la tierra.

Y fue sólo en el siglo pasado cuando finalmente se aceptó la teoría de que los continentes se mueven, a pesar de que esa hipótesis ya había sido propuesta mucho tiempo antes. Pero, cuando se propuso, fue tan ridiculizada como la hipótesis de meteoritos cayendo del cielo o de pulpos extraterrestres.

Por eso, decir “Eso no puede ser así” resulta peligroso, porque revela más una lealtad a ciertas ideas y grupos que una apertura a una nueva forma de ver la realidad.

 

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